Applicative defines ap and pure, but remember that in Scala we mostly interact with the product method defined on Semigroupal via mapN. So we'll consider product and pure, which together with map are sufficient to create an applicative.

Parser[A].product[B](that: Parser[B]): Parser[(A, B)]
pure[A](value: A): Parser[A]

Can you think of a use for these methods? Give this a bit of time before reading on.

Both methods are useful, though product is the more useful of the two. Product means we can combine in sequence two or more parsers that produce different types. We started with an example of parsing text fields into the following data structure:

final case class Album(artist: String, name: String, year: Int)

If we have a Parser[String] and a Parser[Int] we create an Album with a combination of product and map.

val stringParser: Parser[String] = ???
val intParser: Parser[Int] = ???

  .map{ case ((a, n), y) => Album(a, n, y) }

We can more simply write this using mapN:

(stringParser, stringParser, intParser)
  .mapN((a, n, y) => Album(a, n, y))

Pure is less useful, but is still nice to have. It constructs a Parser that always produces the given value and ignores it's input. It's sometimes useful when we know that if we parse some input then some other output is implied. We can create this other output with pure. (No example here because I can't think of one right now!)

Go ahead and implement the methods and the tests. When you come to define an Applicative instance, you'll need to implement the method ap. You can do this in terms of product and map.